While you should aim to get your necessary nutrients from the food by eating a varied diet, multivitamins may help if you are unable to or if you have a deficiency.
“I try to get all of my nutrients from my kitchen instead of my medicine cabinet, but as a realist, I know that meeting my nutrition needs all of the time is not possible,” says Bonnie Taub-Dix, RDN, creator of Better Than Dieting. On top of that, there may be other life factors that make supplementation necessary — pregnancy, menopause, or even chronic conditions.
One 2002 review found that vitamin deficiencies are commonly linked to chronic diseases, and supplementation may help. Even a complete diet may not be giving you the nutrients you need when you need them. That’s where multivitamins come in.
For starters, a daily multivitamin can help provide a good foundation for your health. It can also protect you when you’re experiencing stress, sleeping poorly, or not getting regular exercise.
But with so many vitamin and mineral combos, how do we know exactly what to look for when shopping for a multivitamin? Luckily, you don’t need an advanced degree in nutrition to figure out which multi is worth taking with your morning OJ. We asked four experts to tell us which seven ingredients your multivitamin should have, no matter what brand you choose.
1. Vitamin D
Vitamin D helps our bodies absorb calcium, which is important for bone health. Not getting enough of this vitamin can increase:
- your likelihood of getting sick
- your chances of bone and back pain
- bone and hair loss
While you technically should be able to get your daily vitamin D by being in the sunlight for 15 minutes, the reality is that over 40 percent of people in the United States don’t. Living in wintery locations with little sunlight, working an office 9 to 5 life, and applying sunscreen (which blocks vitamin D synthesis) makes getting vitamin D hard. This vitamin is also hard to come by in food, which is why Taub-Dix says to look for this ingredient in your multi.
Foods with vitamin D
- fatty fish
- egg yolks
- fortified foods like milk, juice, and cereal
Magnesium is an essential nutrient, which means that we must get it from food or supplements. Lerman notes that magnesium is best known for being essential to our bone health and energy production. However, magnesium may have more benefits than that. She adds that this mineral can also:
- calm our nervous system and reduce
stress after 90 days
- ease sleep problems, as suggested
by an older study on mice
- regulate muscle and nerve function
- balance blood sugar levels
- make protein, bone, and even DN
Over 40 percent of the U.S. population doesn’t get enough calcium from their diet. This means those people aren’t getting the mineral they need for strong bones and teeth. Women in particular start losing bone density earlier, and getting enough calcium from the start is the best nutritional defense against this loss.
Foods with calcium
- fortified cereals
- milk, cheese, and yogurt
- salty fish
- broccoli and kale
- nuts and nut butter
- beans and lentils
“Zinc tends to be low in older people and anyone under a lot of stress,” says Lerman. Which, (hello!) is everyone. And it makes sense. Zinc supports our immune system and helps our body use carbohydrates, protein, and fat for energy. It also aids in wound healing.
Foods with zinc
- grass-fed beef
- pumpkin seeds
- organ meats
- brown rice
- wheat germ
The average American diet isn’t rich in foods that offer zinc, and the body can’t store zinc, which is why Lerman recommends your daily supplements highlight this ingredient.
“Iron should be in your multivitamin, but not everyone needs the same amount of iron,” Lerman advises. Some of the benefits of iron include:
- increased energy
- better brain function
- healthy red blood cells
Those who eat red meats typically get enough iron, but certain circumstances like having your menstrual cycle, going through puberty, and being pregnant may increase the amount of iron you need. This is because iron is essential during times of rapid growth and development. Vegetarians and vegans may also want to make sure their multivitamin has iron, especially if they’re not supplementing meat with other iron-rich foods.
Folate (or folic acid) is best known for aiding fetal development and preventing birth defects. But if you’re growing out your nails, fighting depression, or looking to combat inflammation, this ingredient is important, too.
Foods with folate
- dark leafy greens
7. Vitamin B-12
The B-vitamin complex is like a factory of eight diligent workers who band together to create and sustain our body’s energy supply by breaking down the micronutrients we consume (fats, proteins, carbs).
But each has a specialized role, too. Lerman says that specifically, vitamin B-12 works to keep the body’s nerve and blood cells healthy and helps make DNA, the genetic material in all cells. Vegans or vegetarians are prone to vitamin B-12 deficiency because most food sources like meat, poultry, fish, and eggs are animal-based.
“This may be obvious, but it’s worth repeating: When it comes to vitamins and minerals, get it from food first,” Taub-Dix reminds us. Our bodies are designed to reap nutrients from the food we eat, and we will get all the nutrients we need, as long we’re eating a varied and balanced diet.
Because at the end of the day, supplements should be considered bonus boosters, not replacements for food. And all the experts we spoke to agree: A double-decker with a morning multi just won’t cut it.
However, some people may have conditions that require vitamin or mineral supplementation in addition to what they get through their regular diet.